When is a dandelion not a dandelion?
Field Guide to Wildflowers: Northeastern and North-central North America on Google Books ended up being most helpful in coming up with an identification, but IdentifyThatPlant.com Dandelion and Cat's Ear made me confident that I had identified it correctly.
Learning more about it, Cats Ear is quite interesting. It is edible, although it may be toxic to horses in large quantities. Unlike dandelion, it is not supposed to be bitter, and like chicory, you can dry and grind the root for a coffee substitute. I don't drink coffee, so I won't be trying that, and it's a bit late in the season to be eating the leaves, as they are probably quite chewy by now, but I look forward to sampling some next year.